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- In Cold Blood Chapter 1 Summary
- Blood, toil, tears and sweat
- Blood, toil, tears and sweat
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Whiteness is slick and endlessly inventive. On Black dissent in the face of White fragility: Beloved, you are ensnared in one of the bitterest paradoxes of our day. You say we black folk are thin-skinned about race. And yet you can barely tolerate any challenge to your thinking on race. I say thinking, my friends, though that is being kind. Many of you hardly think of race.
To be blunt, you are emotionally immature about race. Some of you are rightly appalled at the ash of white racial demagoguery.
Yet you have little curiosity about the complicated forces of race. You have no idea that your whiteness and your American identity have become fatally intertwined; they are virtually indistinguishable. But, my friends, your innocent whiteness is too costly to maintain. We are forced to be gentle with you, which is another way of saying we are forced to lie to you.
In Cold Blood Chapter 1 Summary
We must let you down easy, you, the powerful partner in our fraught relationship. You get upset when we tell you that whiteness has often been damaging and toxic. But we must risk your wrath to speak back to a defiantly innocent whiteness. You often deem black dissent as disloyalty to America. Great fortunes sprang up like mushrooms in a day; primitive accumulation went on without the advance of a shilling. The trial of Warren Hastings swarms with such cases. Here is an instance. A contract for opium was given to a certain Sullivan at the moment of his departure on an official mission to a part of India far removed from the opium district.
Between and , the English manufactured a famine by buying up all the rice and refusing to sell it again, except at fabulous prices. The treatment of the aborigines was, naturally, most frightful in plantation-colonies destined for export trade only, such as the West Indies, and in rich and well-populated countries, such as Mexico and India, that were given over to plunder. But even in the colonies properly so called, the Christian character of primitive accumulation did not belie itself.
Some decades later, the colonial system took its revenge on the descendants of the pious pilgrim fathers, who had grown seditious in the meantime. At English instigation and for English pay they were tomahawked by red-skins. The colonial system ripened, like a hot-house, trade and navigation. The colonies secured a market for the budding manufactures, and, through the monopoly of the market, an increased accumulation.
The treasures captured outside Europe by undisguised looting, enslavement, and murder, floated back to the mother-country and were there turned into capital.
Blood, toil, tears and sweat
Holland, which first fully developed the colonial system, in stood already in the acme of its commercial greatness. It was. Its fisheries, marine, manufactures, surpassed those of any other country.
The total capital of the Republic was probably more important than that of all the rest of Europe put together. Today industrial supremacy implies commercial supremacy. In the period of manufacture properly so called, it is, on the other hand, the commercial supremacy that gives industrial predominance.
It proclaimed surplus-value making as the sole end and aim of humanity. The system of public credit, i. The colonial system with its maritime trade and commercial wars served as a forcing-house for it. Thus it first took root in Holland. National debts, i. The only part of the so-called national wealth that actually enters into the collective possessions of modern peoples is their national debt. Public credit becomes the credo of capital. And with the rise of national debt-making, want of faith in the national debt takes the place of the blasphemy against the Holy Ghost, which may not be forgiven.
The public debt becomes one of the most powerful levers of primitive accumulation.
Blood, toil, tears and sweat
The state creditors actually give nothing away, for the sum lent is transformed into public bonds, easily negotiable, which go on functioning in their hands just as so much hard cash would. But further, apart from the class of lazy annuitants thus created, and from the improvised wealth of the financiers, middlemen between the government and the nation — as also apart from the tax-farmers, merchants, private manufacturers, to whom a good part of every national loan renders the service of a capital fallen from heaven — the national debt has given rise to joint-stock companies, to dealings in negotiable effects of all kinds, and to agiotage, in a word to stock-exchange gambling and the modern bankocracy.
Hence the accumulation of the national debt has no more infallible measure than the successive rise in the stock of these banks, whose full development dates from the founding of the Bank of England in It was allowed to use these notes for discounting bills, making advances on commodities, and for buying the precious metals. It was not long ere this credit-money, made by the bank itself, became.
The coin in which the Bank of England made its loans to the State, and paid, on account of the State, the interest on the public debt. It was not enough that the bank gave with one hand and took back more with the other; it remained, even whilst receiving, the eternal creditor of the nation down to the last shilling advanced. Gradually it became inevitably the receptacle of the metallic hoard of the country, and the centre of gravity of all commercial credit.
With the national debt arose an international credit system, which often conceals one of the sources of primitive accumulation in this or that people. Thus the villainies of the Venetian thieving system formed one of the secret bases of the capital-wealth of Holland to whom Venice in her decadence lent large sums of money. So also was it with Holland and England. By the beginning of the 18th century the Dutch manufactures were far outstripped.
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Holland had ceased to be the nation preponderant in commerce and industry. One of its main lines of business, therefore, from , is the lending out of enormous amounts of capital, especially to its great rival England. The same thing is going on today between England and the United States. A great deal of capital, which appears today in the United States without any certificate of birth, was yesterday, in England, the capitalised blood of children. The loans enable the government to meet extraordinary expenses, without the tax-payers feeling it immediately, but they necessitate, as a consequence, increased taxes.
Dumbledore explained to Harry the various potent magical powers of the Phoenix and they both watched him rebirth from his ashes. Harry then used the sword to slay Slytherin's basilisk. Fawkes shed healing tears upon Harry's wounds, inflicted by the Basilisk before its death, and cured him of its venom.
Fawkes then dropped Tom Riddle's Diary into Harry's lap, giving Harry the chance to destroy it with one of the basilisk's fangs. As a phoenix can lift a great weight with its tail in flight; when Harry grasped Fawkes' tail in the Chamber of Secrets , he felt as if he were becoming weightless — which is saying something, as Ron , Ginny , and Gilderoy Lockhart were in turn hanging on to him. Later, in his office, Dumbledore revealed where Fawkes had come from — when the memory of Tom Riddle declared that he would go on to become the greatest sorcerer in the world, Harry responded that " Albus Dumbledore is the greatest wizard in the world!
This act of supreme loyalty was apparently enough to summon Fawkes to the Chamber. During this conversation, Dumbledore revealed that Fawkes was the phoenix who had donated his tail feathers to Harry and Voldemort's wands, while Fawkes used his tears to heal the wound in Harry's leg that was caused by an Acromantula in the third task of the tournament.
In late , Fawkes served as a means of communication between members of the Order and Dumbledore, after learning Arthur Weasley had been attacked by Voldemort's snake, Nagini , while Arthur was guarding The Prophecy. During Dumbledore's duel against Lord Voldemort in the ministry atrium in , Fawkes swallowed a Killing Curse intended for Dumbledore, thus giving Dumbledore time to defend himself against Voldemort's second oncoming attack. He burst into flame upon swallowing the curse and was later reborn from the ashes.
Fawkes flies away from Hogwarts. After Dumbledore died during the Battle of the Astronomy Tower in at the assumed hands of Severus Snape, Fawkes sang his Lament to the assembled mourners. This Lament affected all with its beauty. Fawkes subsequently left Hogwarts, as his ties to the school were now dead. He never returned and became a wild Phoenix once more. Fawkes had crimson feathers on his body and a golden tail as long as a peacock's. He was roughly the size of a swan.
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His claws and beak were gleaming gold — the latter was "long" — and his eyes are black. The scarlet body feathers glowed faintly in darkness, while the golden tail feathers were hot to the touch, though it is unknown if they were actually capable of burning someone as neither Harry — when Fawkes carried him from the Chamber of Secrets in — nor Dumbledore — when he escaped the Ministry officials with Fawkes's help in — were burned by his tail feathers, however it is possible that Fawkes could control the temperature of his tail feathers and chosen not to burn them.
Fawkes served as Albus Dumbledore 's messenger and his constant companion, forming a close bond with the old wizard. Fawkes was also affiliated with Harry Potter and the members of the Order of the Phoenix and was the inspiration for its name. Fawkes was extremely loyal and courageous, as displayed by his attack on Salazar Slytherin's basilisk and his defence of Dumbledore during his duel with Voldemort. Considering he came back to life every time he died he didn't really have much reason to fear death and was therefore willing to sacrifice himself for people who won his loyalty.